When discussing hair entanglement in the pool and how to prevent these types of incidents from occurring, we have to look at a few things. The first is line velocity. If it is low enough, hair won’t be ingested by the pipe and tangled under the drain lid. Suction entrapment wouldn’t occur either, even if a grate were missing.
The second issue pertains to the current codes and standards. Some states have state building codes that dictate maximum line velocities for energy efficiency. California and Florida both mandate line velocities of 6 FPS suction and 8 FPS returns for energy efficiency.
Residential In-ground Pools NSPI-5/2003 (9.2) the line velocities were limited to 8 FPS suction and 10 FPS returns. (9.2.1) the limit through the drain cover was limited to 1.5 FPS.
Residential In-ground Pools NSPI-5/2013 (9.2) the line velocities were limited to 8 FPS suction and 8 FPS returns. (9.2.1) the limit through the drain cover was deferred to the APSP-7 standard.
Suction Entrapment Avoidance APSP-7 (2013) Piping line velocity is not specified, though the flow rate through the drain cover is limited to 1.5 FPS.
APSP-15 Energy Efficiency Code (2011) 6 FPS suction and 8 FPS return
ISPSC 2015 (311.3) limits the line velocities in the return piping to 8 FPS. (310) It defers to the specifications in APSP-7 (there is no longer a suction line velocity in the standard).
Suction Outlet Fitting Assemblies APSP-16/2017 (3.9.2) piping line velocities were eliminated, though 1.5 FPS remained as the line velocity through the RDP/SOFA.
The safety standards are not addressing energy efficiency. Most experts agree that the optimum efficiencies are achieved at 6 FPS suction and 8 FPS return line velocities. The majority of hydraulic engineers are designing at 4.5 FPS suction and 6 FPS return line velocities. This allows for a margin of error and minor deviations that may occur during construction, while still staying below the maximums. Most codes for public pools recognize the need for low line velocities and therefore limit the velocities at the pipe connected to the main drain to 1.5 – 3 FPS.
The safety standards assume two things occur. The first assumption is that the drain sump size is compliant with the SOFA requirements and the manufacturer’s specifications. Field-built sumps (divots carved out of the shotcrete) are oftentimes too shallow. Few builders thicken the shotcrete around the suction pipes to allow for a proper depth sump.
The decreased distance between the suction pipe and the underside of the drain cover increases the flow through the drain cover. This increases the danger of hair entanglement, as the design standards and flow rate through the cover have been exceeded. Therefore the sumps are of insufficient size and volume to slow the velocity of the water.
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Photo Credit: Getty Images
Utilizing Drainage Mats In Pool Construction
Retaining walls, raised pool bond beams and pools with adjacent upslopes all require drainage behind them. But it is impossible to install drainage rock up the walls of a shotcrete pool, without extensive over-excavation, forming and backfilling.
Instead of ignoring these conditions, wise contractors utilize drainage mats installed upon the earth, prior to the placement of the shotcrete. This allows the subterranean water to drain vertically into the drain rock under the pool, where it can be collected and discharged (drained to daylight or via a sump pump).
For high-end projects or all tile vessels, this is critical in reducing negative side water infiltration from the soils. Water passes through the geofabric and into the air gap created by the dimples in the plastic sheet. The drainage mats are available with dimples of various sizes to match the anticipated water flow.
Drainage mats can also be used horizontally between coffers and vessels to assist in the lateral discharge of water. The drainage mats can be nailed to the soil prior to steel placement or utilized in place of steel-tex.
Photo Credits: Carlisle Coatings & Waterproofing Systems
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Indoor Pools & Water Vapor, What You Need To Know
Indoor pools are very unique. The water vapor escaping from the pool is trapped in the building envelope. These vapors are potentially corrosive, as they contain chlorine, chloramines, or ozone. The water can have destructive consequences and pose serious health issues if the building is constructed incorrectly.
Dehumidification for Indoor Pools
There is no such thing as an oversized dehumidification system. But the lack of a dehumidifier (or an undersized one) allows the water vapor to accumulate and penetrate the building envelope. Water vapor inside the walls can cause corrosion of the structural beams, braces, and brackets, corrosion of the wiring and electrical components, foster mold and algae growth, rusting of HVAC ducts, or promote dry rot of wooden elements. Excess water vapor in the building can lead to a series of air-borne health maladies or bacterial infections.
Been There, Done That
Cheap clients who do not want to pay for the installation or operation of a dehumidification system, think that they can reinvent the wheel with exhaust fans, sliding doors, skylights, ceiling fans, or other schemes. Trust us, they have been tried countless times without success.
Proper Building Envelope for Indoor Pools
It is important to install a vapor barrier and use moisture-resistant construction materials to prevent the migration of moisture into the walls and ceiling. Electrical outlets, fixtures, and penetrations must be sealed against vapor intrusion.
Air Pressure in Indoor Pools
The air pressure within the swimming pool enclosure must be less than the adjacent spaces. Maintaining a high pressure in the adjacent spaces ensures that the water vapor does not migrate.
Operating a dehumidification and air handling system to control the air pressures, temperatures and humidity are expensive to operate. Failure to operate these systems properly will result in vapor migration and degradation of the building. Maintaining the proper temperatures is also important in controlling the creation of water vapor (evaporation).
Automatic Pool Cover
Using a pool cover does not eliminate the need for a dehumidification system. It will help reduce the vapors, but it will not eliminate them. The installation of a cover allows for the reduction in the size of the dehumidification system, as the loads are reduced.
Qualified Indoor Air Quality Expert
We do not profess to be experts in this field. Though we have built a number of indoor pools, we rely upon specialists in this field. Most mechanical engineers or dehumidifier manufacturers do not possess the skills to properly design the HVAC/Dehumidification system, vapor barriers, building envelope, ducting sizes, or air handling register/return locations.
Non-Corrosive Air Ducts
Properly constructed indoor pool air handling systems utilize non-corrosive plastic ducting, registers, and returns. Galvanized sheet metal ducting quickly begins to corrode in an indoor pool environment. Indoor pools can be a source for year-round enjoyment of a pool. But they require a properly designed and built enclosure, in order to protect the rest of the building and occupants’ health.
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Flawed By Design – Skimmer Lids, Drain Covers, & Fittings
With the ready availability of colored pool fittings, there is no excuse for using mismatched skimmers, drain covers, wall fittings or plastic lids. Concealing these “architectural uglies” is easy – things most pools require, but no one wants to see.
SKIMMER LIDS (and deck lids)
There is absolutely no excuse for using plastic skimmer lids. Besides being a visual distraction, they only last a few short years. For concrete, stone or pavers there are the round or square pourable lids. Their non-metallic design eliminates the requirement for bonding, electrical safety that metallic lid trays simply disregard and ignore. They are even available for most popular laminar fountains. If the deck is overlaid with a thick & dense stone, simply manufacture a lid out of stone.
Covering the deck with multiple plastic or brass drains, or worse yet linear plastic drain channels creates visual clutter. Again, there are pourable deck drain covers – available in a combo 3 & 4 inch size, 6-inch size and linear slot drains.
Why distract from the beauty of the pool with white plastic drain covers that distract from the exotic finish, pebbles or mosaic tiles? There are even drain covers available that accept troweled or tile finishes – floor returns, drain covers, channel drains and even for in-floor cleaning heads.
As with floor drains, why distract from the surface finishes with fittings that do not match or protrude from the wall? There are a myriad of flush mounted and colored fittings to match almost any color finish. For those finishes that do not come close to matching the standard colors, there are clear fittings that blend with any finish color. With a little bit of effort these items can be concealed with minimal expense.
https://abtdrains.com/…/precast-trench-drain/vector-drain (We use these and tile over the rims, leaving just an ungrouted joint – super clean look) http://www.acodrain.us
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