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Ultraviolet Pool Systems

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Ultraviolet Pool Systems

In current years, the requisite for additional hygiene in public pools have become very distinct. Maintaining recreational pool water safe for swimmers most times necessitates more than the ordinary halogen-based sanitizer, such as chlorine, thus introduction of Ultraviolet (UV) Light Secondary Disinfection Systems. Some residential pool owners also use Ultraviolet pool systems in sanitation to improve general outcomes and minimize chlorine use.

Ultraviolet Pool Systems

Essentials of Ultraviolet Pool Systems

Wavelength

UV light is a range of short wavelengths of light 10nm – 400 nm and invisible to the naked eye.

Medium-Pressure UV Light Systems

Characterization of Medium-Pressure UV Light Systems is by the UV light spectrum in which they function. They function in a wavelength range of about 250 nm-600 nm. The lamps function at temperatures above 1,500 degrees Fahrenheit. In this range of wavelengths, UV light can react with various chemicals in water and deactivate chlorine sanitizers. This makes the process expensive due to the high volumes of sanitizers needed.

Low-Pressure UV Light Systems 

This is characterized by the light spectrum in which they function. The wavelength range required to function is narrow at around 190 nm to 254 nm. The wavelength of 254 nm is suitable for the destruction of chloramine. This wavelength does not affect free chlorine and operates at 140 degrees Fahrenheit, making it cost-friendly to operate.

Secondary Disinfection UV Light Systems 

Secondary Disinfection UV Light Systems are necessary on any increased risk aquatic venue as explained in ANSI/APSP/ICC-11 2019.

The explanation for this is that some pathogens like Cryptosporidium resist halogen-based sanitizers. A single pass through the reactor can make the UV light systems inactivate the pathogens. Medium-Pressure UV Light Systems are mainly used for secondary disinfection, though Low-Pressure UV Light Systems can also be applicable.

Supplemental Disinfection UV Light Systems 

For Supplemental Disinfection UV Light Systems, installation can be on any aquatic venue, not only on increased risk aquatic venues. These ultraviolet pool systems inactivate the majority of the waterborne pathogens aside from Cryptosporidium. Most Supplemental Disinfection UV Light Systems are medium-pressure systems.

Water Conditioning Device

UV light systems are the latest addition to UV light products and aren’t sanitizers. They use low-pressure UV lamps functioning at 254 nm. Compared to the Low Pressure UV Pool Systems, Water Conditioning Devices aren’t meant for use as either supplemental or secondary sanitizers but instead to improve water and air quality in indoor pools.

UV Light Dosage is the Key 

Whether a secondary, supplemental, or water conditioning device, the quantity is the most significant factor.

UV dosage relies on three important things:

Ultraviolet Transmittance (UVT) of the water

Contaminants like iron interrupt the transmission of UV light through water, despite the pool water appearing clear.

The power of the UV lamp

The amount required to get rid of monochloramines is 60 mj/cm2 for indoor pools and 40 mj/cm2 for outdoor pools.

The rate of the water flow through the UV pool systems

If the rate is slow, there is more contact time at the point of exposure to the UV light, hence accomplishing a higher dosage.

Different microorganisms require varying dosages for their deactivation. In most cases, UV light reacts faster at deactivating microorganisms than the advisable amount of sanitizer. Nevertheless, the common cold virus is resilient to UV light but can be easily deactivated by recreational water sanitizers.

The rate of water flow affects the UV system dosage. Thus, balancing suitable amounts of sanitizers and UV light systems at required flow rates can aid in providing a safe swimming environment.

Its application

UV treatment is a speedy physical process. In a UV disinfection process, pass water through a chamber containing a UV lamp. The bacteria in the water get exposed to the UV radiation generated by the mercury arc UV lamp. The radiation penetrates a microorganism’s cell wall, making it unable to mutate and damage its DNA. For this reason, it is unable to reproduce or function, making it harmless.

Most local codes will need a Secondary UV Light System installed to guarantee swimmer safety. Water conditioning UV light systems are becoming popular for indoor pools. This is because of their effectiveness in getting rid of stubborn chloramines; therefore helps improve the air quality for swimmers. UV products are normally used with spray pads as they are often categorized as increased risk aquatic venues because of their use by kids.

Maintenance and precautions

  • Maintenance is imperative in ensuring the proper working of UV light products. Medium-pressure units need ultimate care since they function at extremely high temperatures. For the glass sleeve containing the UV lamp, it is usually coated with calcium and other contaminants. These components, at times, have wipers to clean the sleeves automatically. Lamps also require constant replacement. The necessary maintenance raises the expenses on operation and energy use.
  • Low-pressure UV light products need lesser care. These lamps can function longer than medium-pressure units before necessitating a replacement. They are cheaper and also in the operating cost.
  • It is essential to adhere to all applicable electrical codes and safety measures when using UV equipment. Before servicing or making electrical connections, switch off the power at the main source. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions when operating and maintaining the ultraviolet pool systems.
  • UV light can lead to serious eye and skin damage. Don’t handle or glare at a functioning UV lamp.
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Pool News coverage brought to you by Pool Magazine's own Marcus Packer. Marcus Packer is a 20 year pool industry veteran pool builder and pool service technician. In addition to being a swimming pool professional, Marcus has been a writer and long time contributor for Newsweek Magazine's home improvement section and more recently for Florida Travel + Life. Have a story idea or tip you'd like to share with Pool Magazine? Email [email protected] your story idea.

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The Indoor Ocean Where The US Navy Tests Its Ships

Take an insiders tour of the Indoor Ocean where the US Navy tests its ships.

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One of the world’s largest wave pools sits at the United States Naval Surface Warfare Center. They use the facility to create waves of specific sizes, frequencies, and amplitudes. Since 1962, the US Navy has tested all of its ships, platforms, and moored systems in realistic sea conditions at the Indoor Ocean in NSWC Carderock.

Approximately 240′ x 360′, the enormous basin is 20 feet deep and holds 12 million gallons of water. In addition, it also once held the record for having the world’s largest dome.

Indoor Ocean Used To Predict Ship Performance

The Navy uses the facility to predict how their full-scale ships will perform in the open ocean by testing their stability and control in a vessel that simulates real-world wave conditions. The maneuvering and seakeeping basin, also nicknamed (MASK) is where the US Navy tests its fleet. Built in 1962, and renovated in 2013.

The Indoor Ocean received an upgrade from 21 slow and inefficient pneumatic domes to 216 paddles. Consequently, today, operators have better and more independent control. With 99 percent precision, the results produced at the renovated facility provide far more realistic conditions than its predecessor.

NSWC Carderock is one of eight Naval Sea Systems Command Surface Warfare Centers. Credit: DOD

Engineers at the facility evaluate operability, ship motions, and efficiency. MASK researchers can then use this information to fine-tune a new vessel’s design to maximize its chances of achieving the desired level of performance. Testing also aids in establishing operational guidelines for the crew and ensuring the correct configuration of the ship.

The US Navy uses the Indoor Ocean facility at NSWC Carderock to conduct tests for the design of its fleet. Credit: DOD

“There are many different kinds of waves,” Calvin Krishen, NSWC engineer, said in a YouTube video uploaded by the Department of Defense. “Waves are different in different parts of the world and they are different depending if you are close to shore, or away from shore or whether you’re in a storm or not. We actually have the capability of programming all those different types of waves to test.”

Conducting Testing & Analysis To Create Better Ships

Engineers perform rigorous tests and manufacture vessels to a smaller scale in order to see how they will perform out on the open ocean. Based on the analysis conducted at NSWC Carderock, ship designers can make necessary adjustments to improve performance in real-world conditions.

Ship designers can make any necessary adjustments based off analysis conducted during wave simulations. Credit: DOD

How This Enormous Wave Pool Works

The machine that operates the wave pool consists of a paddle system that lines two walls of the pool. The system consists of 216 individual wavemakers capable of producing waves of varying sizes from -45 degrees to 135 degrees.

The paddle system is programmed for choreographed movement. It creates reproducible, perfect-sized, perfect-frequency waves. Force transducers create air bellows that go across the pool at specific angular motions. The motion is akin to fingers moving across the keys of a piano.

A series of choreographed bellows control the paddle system that creates the waves. Credit: Vertasium

There are wave pools located all over the world but what makes the Indoor Ocean unique is its ability to create reproducible waves of specific amplitude and frequency. Wave conditions vary in different parts of the world. MASK, however, is capable of mimicking the same conditions that exist during various times of the year in any location across the globe.

Paddles are programmed to create repeatable waves of specific frequency. Credit: Veritasium

Why The Need To Upgrade?

The old pneumatic-powered wave system used antiquated technology. The Navy requires a facility capable of performing the rigorous testing demanded by engineers. In the past, the testing team sometimes had to relocate their models to the actual ocean and study the weather in order to recreate the perfect wave conditions.

Today, designers create models as large as 30 feet in length. Operators submerge them in MASK’s turbulent waters to simulate their future working conditions.

Data analysts conduct tests to see how ships will perform at sea. Image Credit: Licet Studios

Precise computer controls may be the most useful part of the new high-tech system. Testers can design a certain marine environment and tell the computer how to achieve it. Operators program a 3D model of the exact waveform they want to simulate.

“We can nail, at scale, the conditions all over the world,” said Jon Etxegoien, Head of Naval Architecture & Engineering, “So it’s not just that we can do some kind of rogue sea states, we can actually do the kind of seas they can expect in the North Atlantic, the South Pacific, littoral areas, that sort of thing. So that’s what gives us a real leg up. It’s not just some generic sea condition, but the specifics of where they’re going to be operating.”

Take a Tour Inside Where The US Navy Tests Its Ships

Does it shock and awe us that the United States military owns the best wave pool in the world? Not really. However, it does fill us with enormous pride to know that dedicated professionals perform the highest level of testing and analysis for the vessels that comprise our naval fleet.

Featured Photo Credit: Department of Defense

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China Claims Title For World’s Highest Outdoor Swimming Pool

New business tower in China has a pool with breathtaking views from the 71st floor.

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China Claims The Title For World's Highest Outdoor Swimming Pool

The title of the World’s Highest Outdoor Swimming Pool now goes to China. Construction of a new 1,322-foot-tall tower by Chicago-based architects Goettsch Partners is now complete in Nanning, China. The tower’s crowning feature is an outdoor swimming pool that, according to the architects, is the highest in the world.

Title for Highest Outdoor Pool Goes To China

The hotel’s pool on the 71st-floor terrace is 1,060 feet above the ground, making it the highest in the world. Previously, the 57th-floor infinity pool at Moshe Safdie’s Marina Bay Sands held the title.

Guangxi China Resources Tower claims the title for the world's highest outdoor swimming pool.
Guangxi China Resources Tower claims the title for the world’s highest outdoor swimming pool.

The Guangxi China Resources Tower, at over 2.93 million square feet, is the 18th tallest building in China and the 37th tallest building in the world. It is a mixed-use design that includes a hotel, office spaces, and retail.

More than 60% of the 86-story structure’s lettable space, or 272,000 square meters, will be occupied by offices. Approximately 6,000 square meters of retail space and a Shangri-La Nanning hotel with 336 rooms are also planned.

“The building is a symbol of rising prosperity for the city,” notes James Zheng, AIA, LEED AP, CEO and president of GP. “It further sets a world-class standard for quality that is meant to endure.”

The tower, developed by Shenzhen-based China Resources Land, will serve as the focal point of a brand-new 90-hectare urban quarter in Nanning. The podium and basement of the building are linked to the structures around it.

The hotel's infinity pool sits on the 71st floor of the massive sky scraper.
The hotel’s pool sits on the 71st floor of the massive skyscraper in Nanning, China.

Beginning in 2014, the building process will be completed by the end of 2020 (November). The company claims that the building is completely occupied and functional now that the interior fit-out is complete.

One of a Kind Panoramic Views

The hotel emerges atop the office volume, drastically altering the building’s profile. The lower volume is capped by a monumental terrace at Level 71, which serves as a one-of-a-kind outdoor sky space where guests can swim in the hotel’s pool. From sunrise to sunset, the sweeping 180-degree panorama offers unparalleled views of the surrounding lakes, parks, and mountains.

The tower is an essential part of a larger mixed-use development, and its design to LEED Gold standards places an emphasis on sustainable sites and energy optimization. The podium and basement levels of the various buildings work together to form a seamless network that is optimized for the greater master-planned development. Sunshades on the building’s exterior, combined with a high-performance façade enclosure system, allow for abundant natural light and breathtaking vistas to penetrate every level while significantly cutting down on energy consumption.

Mechanical systems have been developed to maximize the efficiency of operation, reduce energy and water use while increasing comfort levels inside the building. The highest quality materials are used throughout the structure to emphasize longevity and durability and lessen the building’s future impact on the local environment.

“The tower is a sustainable response to its urban context,” sayid Travis Soberg, AIA, LEED AP, in a press release. “The building integrates conservation methods throughout the design that reinforce our commitment to environmental responsibility.”

Photo Credits: Goettsch Partners

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Las Vegas Losing Classic Fire & Water Feature – Mirage Volcano Set to Close

Hard Rock confirms iconic Las Vegas fire feature, Mirage Volcano will close.

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Las Vegas Losing Classic Fire & Water Feature - Mirage Volcano Set to Close

The Mirage’s fiery volcano, which has been erupting regularly on the Las Vegas Strip for over 30 years, will soon cease activity forever.

Since MGM Resorts International sold the property to Hard Rock International last year, the resort has been undergoing a rebranding process, and the resort’s iconic volcano will not play a role in the new resort plan.

The time of the final eruption for the Mirage Volcano is unknown, and neither Hard Rock nor MGM officials would confirm exactly when the volcano would be dismantled. They plan to build another one of Hard Rocks guitar-shaped hotels in the space.

About The Mirage Volcano

When the resort opened on November 22, 1989, the volcano quickly became a fan favorite. A modeled three-acre paradise resembling the South Seas is routinely jolted awake by the ominous rumbles of the Mirage Volcano throughout the night. Rapid movement of water along with creative lighting resembles lava.

Exciting flames shoot over 60 feet into the air. If you’ve ever watched the show from the street, you can literally feel the searing heat. With music composed by Grateful Dead drummer Mickey Hart and tabla virtuoso Zakir Hussain, more than 150 Fireshooters, developed by WET Design (who also created the Fountains of Bellagio), propel fireballs in a dramatic choreographed display.

The volcano was one of the first free attractions paving the way for others like the pirate battle at Treasure Island, the light shows and concerts at the Fremont Street Experience, and the Bellagio fountains.

From 8 p.m. until 11 p.m., the volcano at the Mirage continues its hourly eruptions. We took the opportunity to see this fiery spectacle, perhaps for the last time, while exhibiting at the PSP Deck Expo recently. The street was packed with onlookers watching the show on the street.

Elaine Wynn, who was married to casino magnate Steve Wynn at the time, first came up with the idea for the volcano as a great way to differentiate the Mirage from the competition.

In recent years, however, Las Vegas has been shifting away from a transparently thematic approach with its newest resorts, including the Cosmopolitan (2010), Circa (2020), and Resorts World (2021), and its reliance on free attractions and loss leaders, such as buffets and poker rooms, to bring in the bustling crowds.

Las Vegas Residents Eager To Keep Attraction

There has been a running sentiment amongst casino insiders that free attractions such as the Mirage Volcano have turned into a drain on profits. In light of the news that the Volcano is slated to be removed, many Las Vegas residents have expressed they do not want to see the attraction go.

“When I heard the news, I remember just wondering why this was going to happen,” Alden Gillespy, a longtime resident of Las Vegas and critic of removing the volcano, told the Las Vegas Sun. “The fact that they were going to tear down the volcano, that hit me personally.”

Every time it goes off, the Volcano in Las Vegas draws in hundreds of people, both young and old, to the Strip. The idea of tearing it down has been met with pushback. A group of passionate residents in Las Vegas has banded together to compel Hard Rock International and the city government to stop the new owner from demolishing what they say is a historic landmark. A petition to protect the volcano has over 9,000 signatures of support.

Among those who think the volcano should be preserved is UNLV history professor Michael Green.

“We lost a lot of hotels on the Strip because of the understandable need to build better, more modern hotels,” Green told the Sun. “The volcano is a reminder of how it helped trigger the modern Las Vegas boom.”

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