Connect with us

Swimming Pool Expert Witness - Paolo Benedetti

ISPSC Code Holds Builders to a Higher Standard

Published

on

ISPSC Code Holds Builders to a Higher Standard

Many states that never before had pool & spa codes, now have included them in their building codes. While most states and municipalities have adopted a version of the International Swimming Pool and Spa Code (ISPSC), some have never even heard of the pool & spa code before.

What does the ISPSC do?

The ISPSC is the only comprehensive swimming pool code that is coordinated with the I-Codes and PHTA Standards. It was developed in conjunction with the Pool & Hot Tub Alliance (PHTA). The ISPSC incorporates prescriptive and performance-based minimum requirements for public and residential pools, spas, and hot tubs.

Pool Service Software
Aqua Blue Mosaics Aqua Blue Mosaics Aqua Blu Mosaics Pool Tile Mosaics Tile Grout Hardscapes & Pavers Outdoor Living Accessories

The ISPSC covers both the design and construction of commercial AND residential swimming pools. It also includes and references many APSP codes as well. Consequently, because of these additional references in the ISPSC, many designers and builders now have a myriad of codes and standards which they must now meet.

Texas which had no formal pool & spa codes and recently adopted ISPSC statewide.
Texas which had no formal pool & spa codes has recently adopted ISPSC statewide.

Texas Adopts ISPSC Statewide

A state that previously had no formal pool and spa codes, Texas, recently adopted the ISPSC statewide. The Texas State Residential Code section R326.1, adopted the 2015 ISPSC.

Many local governments often adopt the codes as well, oftentimes making amendments to the adopted statewide version. Austin, Dallas, Houston and San Antonio, Texas have all adopted their own versions of the ISPSC.

Even though a project is being built outside of city limits where there are no permit or formal inspection requirements, the State Building Codes still apply as the minimum design and performance standards. (Residential Code, ISPSC, Electric Code, Fuel Gas Code and Mechanical Code). In the event of an personal injury or a workmanship dispute, the State Building codes will be compared to the project parameters.

Where do you find the codes?

You can find the codes on the following website: https://up.codes/codes/

Aqua Blue Mosaics Aqua Blue Mosaics Aqua Blu Mosaics Pool Tile Mosaics Tile Grout Hardscapes & Pavers Outdoor Living Accessories

Researching the codes in each state will better familiarize you and help you to learn and understand them. It certainly pays to know, after all this is your trade and profession!

5/5 - (1 vote)

Paolo Benedetti is the President of Aquatic Technology and better known on social media as the "Swimming Pool Expert Witness". Paolo is an instructor at Watershape University and has authored a myriad of articles on the finer points of pool construction and design. He is a pioneer in the field of aquatic design, constantly pushing the envelope, creating a number of firsts that spawned new trends in the industry.

Continue Reading
Click to comment


Subscribe
Notify of
0 Comments
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments

Op Editorials

Hair Entanglement in Pools, Are Current Standards Adequate?

Published

on

Hair Entanglement in Pools, Are Current Standards Adequate?

When discussing hair entanglement in the pool and how to prevent these types of incidents from occurring, we have to look at a few things. The first is line velocity. If it is low enough, hair won’t be ingested by the pipe and tangled under the drain lid. Suction entrapment wouldn’t occur either, even if a grate were missing.

Video captured a teen girl nearly drowning after getting her hair caught in the pool.

The second issue pertains to the current codes and standards. Some states have state building codes that dictate maximum line velocities for energy efficiency. California and Florida both mandate line velocities of 6 FPS suction and 8 FPS returns for energy efficiency. 

Pool Service Software
Aqua Blue Mosaics Aqua Blue Mosaics Aqua Blu Mosaics Pool Tile Mosaics Tile Grout Hardscapes & Pavers Outdoor Living Accessories

Current Standards

Residential In-ground Pools NSPI-5/2003 (9.2) the line velocities were limited to 8 FPS suction and 10 FPS returns. (9.2.1) the limit through the drain cover was limited to 1.5 FPS.

Residential In-ground Pools NSPI-5/2013 (9.2) the line velocities were limited to 8 FPS suction and 8 FPS returns. (9.2.1) the limit through the drain cover was deferred to the APSP-7 standard.

Suction Entrapment Avoidance APSP-7 (2013) Piping line velocity is not specified, though the flow rate through the drain cover is limited to 1.5 FPS.

APSP-15 Energy Efficiency Code (2011) 6 FPS suction and 8 FPS return

ISPSC 2015 (311.3) limits the line velocities in the return piping to 8 FPS.  (310) It defers to the specifications in APSP-7 (there is no longer a suction line velocity in the standard).

Aqua Blue Mosaics Aqua Blue Mosaics Aqua Blu Mosaics Pool Tile Mosaics Tile Grout Hardscapes & Pavers Outdoor Living Accessories

Suction Outlet Fitting Assemblies APSP-16/2017 (3.9.2) piping line velocities were eliminated, though 1.5 FPS remained as the line velocity through the RDP/SOFA.

RE: Hair Entanglement In The Pool - Decreased distance between the suction pipe and the underside of the drain cover increases the flow through the drain cover.
Decreased distance between the suction pipe and the underside of the drain cover increases the flow through the drain cover.

The safety standards are not addressing energy efficiency. Most experts agree that the optimum efficiencies are achieved at 6 FPS suction and 8 FPS return line velocities. The majority of hydraulic engineers are designing at 4.5 FPS suction and 6 FPS return line velocities. This allows for a margin of error and minor deviations that may occur during construction, while still staying below the maximums. Most codes for public pools recognize the need for low line velocities and therefore limit the velocities at the pipe connected to the main drain to 1.5 – 3 FPS.

The safety standards assume two things occur. The first assumption is that the drain sump size is compliant with the SOFA requirements and the manufacturer’s specifications.  Field-built sumps (divots carved out of the shotcrete) are oftentimes too shallow. Few builders thicken the shotcrete around the suction pipes to allow for a proper depth sump.

The decreased distance between the suction pipe and the underside of the drain cover increases the flow through the drain cover. This increases the danger of hair entanglement, as the design standards and flow rate through the cover have been exceeded. Therefore the sumps are of insufficient size and volume to slow the velocity of the water.

Swimming Pool Expert Witness

Photo Credit: Getty Images

5/5 - (1 vote)

Continue Reading

Swimming Pool Expert Witness - Paolo Benedetti

Utilizing Drainage Mats In Pool Construction

Published

on

Pool Contractor Using Drainage Mat During Pool Construction

Retaining walls, raised pool bond beams and pools with adjacent upslopes all require drainage behind them. But it is impossible to install drainage rock up the walls of a shotcrete pool, without extensive over-excavation, forming and backfilling.

Instead of ignoring these conditions, wise contractors utilize drainage mats installed upon the earth, prior to the placement of the shotcrete. This allows the subterranean water to drain vertically into the drain rock under the pool, where it can be collected and discharged (drained to daylight or via a sump pump).

Pool Service Software
Aqua Blue Mosaics Aqua Blue Mosaics Aqua Blu Mosaics Pool Tile Mosaics Tile Grout Hardscapes & Pavers Outdoor Living Accessories

For high-end projects or all tile vessels, this is critical in reducing negative side water infiltration from the soils. Water passes through the geofabric and into the air gap created by the dimples in the plastic sheet. The drainage mats are available with dimples of various sizes to match the anticipated water flow.

Drainage mats can also be used horizontally between coffers and vessels to assist in the lateral discharge of water. The drainage mats can be nailed to the soil prior to steel placement or utilized in place of steel-tex.

Photo Credits: Carlisle Coatings & Waterproofing Systems

Swimming Pool Expert Witness

Aqua Blue Mosaics Aqua Blue Mosaics Aqua Blu Mosaics Pool Tile Mosaics Tile Grout Hardscapes & Pavers Outdoor Living Accessories
5/5 - (1 vote)

Continue Reading

Swimming Pool Expert Witness - Paolo Benedetti

Indoor Pools & Water Vapor, What You Need To Know

Published

on

Indoor Pools & Water Vapor, What You Need To Know

Indoor pools are very unique. The water vapor escaping from the pool is trapped in the building envelope. These vapors are potentially corrosive, as they contain chlorine, chloramines, or ozone. The water can have destructive consequences and pose serious health issues if the building is constructed incorrectly.

Dehumidification of indoor pools is absolutely essential in order to avoid costly damage and repair work.
Dehumidification of indoor pools is absolutely essential in order to avoid costly damage and repair work.

Dehumidification for Indoor Pools

There is no such thing as an oversized dehumidification system. But the lack of a dehumidifier (or an undersized one) allows the water vapor to accumulate and penetrate the building envelope. Water vapor inside the walls can cause corrosion of the structural beams, braces, and brackets, corrosion of the wiring and electrical components, foster mold and algae growth, rusting of HVAC ducts, or promote dry rot of wooden elements. Excess water vapor in the building can lead to a series of air-borne health maladies or bacterial infections.

Pool Service Software
Aqua Blue Mosaics Aqua Blue Mosaics Aqua Blu Mosaics Pool Tile Mosaics Tile Grout Hardscapes & Pavers Outdoor Living Accessories
Indoor pool mold from excess water vapor.
Indoor pool mold from excess water vapor.

Been There, Done That

Cheap clients who do not want to pay for the installation or operation of a dehumidification system, think that they can reinvent the wheel with exhaust fans, sliding doors, skylights, ceiling fans, or other schemes. Trust us, they have been tried countless times without success.

Proper Building Envelope for Indoor Pools

It is important to install a vapor barrier and use moisture-resistant construction materials to prevent the migration of moisture into the walls and ceiling. Electrical outlets, fixtures, and penetrations must be sealed against vapor intrusion.

Without Vapor Barrier vs With Vapor Barrier - Indoor Pools
Indoor Pools – Without Vapor Barrier VS With Vapor Barrier – Photo Credit: Aquatic Mechanical Design

Air Pressure in Indoor Pools

The air pressure within the swimming pool enclosure must be less than the adjacent spaces. Maintaining a high pressure in the adjacent spaces ensures that the water vapor does not migrate.

Operational Cost

Operating a dehumidification and air handling system to control the air pressures, temperatures and humidity are expensive to operate. Failure to operate these systems properly will result in vapor migration and degradation of the building. Maintaining the proper temperatures is also important in controlling the creation of water vapor (evaporation).

Automatic Pool Cover

Using a pool cover does not eliminate the need for a dehumidification system. It will help reduce the vapors, but it will not eliminate them. The installation of a cover allows for the reduction in the size of the dehumidification system, as the loads are reduced.

Aqua Blue Mosaics Aqua Blue Mosaics Aqua Blu Mosaics Pool Tile Mosaics Tile Grout Hardscapes & Pavers Outdoor Living Accessories

Qualified Indoor Air Quality Expert

We do not profess to be experts in this field. Though we have built a number of indoor pools, we rely upon specialists in this field. Most mechanical engineers or dehumidifier manufacturers do not possess the skills to properly design the HVAC/Dehumidification system, vapor barriers, building envelope, ducting sizes, or air handling register/return locations.

Non-Corrosive Air Ducts

Properly constructed indoor pool air handling systems utilize non-corrosive plastic ducting, registers, and returns. Galvanized sheet metal ducting quickly begins to corrode in an indoor pool environment. Indoor pools can be a source for year-round enjoyment of a pool. But they require a properly designed and built enclosure, in order to protect the rest of the building and occupants’ health.

Swimming Pool Expert Witness

5/5 - (12 votes)

Continue Reading
Follow us on Google News
Sponsored Advertisement
Sponsored Advertisement
Virginia Commercial Pool BuildersSponsored Advertisement
Sponsored Advertisement
We Build Professionals - Genesis - The World Has Changed, And So Have We.Sponsored Advertisement
Houston Home Theaters - Outdoor Sound SystemsSponsored Advertisement
Las Vegas Pool Equipment RepairsSponsored Advertisement
Sponsored Advertisement
Sponsored Advertisement
Pool Magazine App on Google PlayPool Magazine App on Apple Store

Download the NEW Pool Magazine App

Recent Pool News

Advertisement

Pool News

Pool Magazine™ is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for us to earn commissions by linking to Amazon.com and affiliated sites. Amazon.com, Inc. is not affiliated and does not endorse or support Pool Magazine.

Powered by
© Copyright 2020-2022 - All Rights Reserved - Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our Privacy Policy
Articles and content may not be reused without the expressed permission of Pool Magazine™.

0
Would love your thoughts, please comment.x
()
x